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Sansad TV: Perspective- Unplanned Urbanization and Flood

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Inundated roadways, waterlogged streets, tractors ploughing by flooded localities ferrying people…that’s the variety of mayhem induced by hefty rains in Bengaluru. As men and women struggle to get to offices, Karnataka Chief Minister has cited “unprecedented rainfall and overflowing” drinking water bodies for the deluge. He explained this was the best rainfall in the previous 42 several years, primary to all 164 tanks in Bengaluru getting filled to the brim. The dilemma is: Is the circumstance new? Isn’t it quite significantly the same circumstance each individual 12 months when heavy rains and floods deliver the metropolis to its knees. And not just Bengaluru, probably it’s become a prevalent trouble in possibly every single metro metropolis right now. Yr after yr we are witnessing a very similar scenario in various metropolitan areas.

Urban flooding is the inundation of land or assets in a developed natural environment, especially in extra densely populated spots, triggered by rainfall frustrating the capability of drainage methods, these kinds of as storm sewers. Owing to rapid, unscientific, unplanned urbanization across the world, the carrying capacity of urban places is normally breached leading to impending disasters. Floods and drinking water-logging exhibit that urban planners have paid scant regard to hydrology.

Results in for the increase in city floods

  • Inadequate Drainage Infrastructure: Cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai count on a century-previous drainage procedure, masking only a little element of the main city.
    • In the final 20 several years, the Indian towns have grown manifold with its primary built-up area.
    • As the town grew beyond its unique limits, not considerably was finished to tackle the absence of enough drainage programs.
  • Terrain Alteration:Long lasting irreversible hurt has been done to the city by assets builders, property house owners, and general public businesses by flattening terrain and altering natural drainage routes.
  • Reducing Seepage:Indian metropolitan areas are starting to be ever more impervious to drinking water, not just simply because of raising crafted up but also since of the nature of elements employed (difficult, non-porous building material that would make the soil impervious).
  • Lax Implementation:Even with provisions of rainwater harvesting, sustainable urban drainage techniques, etc, in regulatory mechanisms like the Environmental Effects Evaluation (EIA), adoption at user conclusion as properly as enforcement organizations stays weak.
  • Encroaching Purely natural Areas:The number of wetlands has diminished to 123 in 2018 from 644 in 1956.
    • Green cover is only 9 for each cent, which preferably need to have been at least 33 per cent.

Actions to deal with:d

    • Will need for Holistic Engagement:City floods of this scale are unable to be contained by the municipal authorities on your own. Floods are not able to be managed without concerted and focused investments of electrical power and resources.
      • The Metropolitan Improvement Authorities, National Catastrophe Administration Authority, Condition profits and irrigation departments along with municipal companies must be involved in these kinds of do the job alongside one another.
      • Such investments can only be completed in a mission method organisation with energetic participation of civil culture organisations at the metropolitan scale.
    • Building Sponge Cities:The concept of a sponge town is to make towns far more permeable so as to maintain and use the drinking water which falls upon it.
      • Sponge metropolitan areas take in the rain drinking water, which is then normally filtered by the soil and authorized to achieve urban aquifers.
      • This lets for the extraction of drinking water from the floor by means of city or peri-urban wells.
      • This water can be taken care of very easily and utilised for city water provide.
  • Wetland Plan: There is a require to start off having to pay focus to the management of wetlands by involving regional communities.
    • Without the need of question, terrain alteration wants to be strictly controlled and a ban on any further more alteration of terrain needs to be released.
    • To make improvements to the city’s capacity to absorb drinking water, new porous materials and technologies have to be encouraged or mandated across scales.
    • Examples of these technologies are bioswales and retention programs, permeable content for streets and pavement, drainage units which allow storm drinking water to trickle into the floor, inexperienced roofs and harvesting units in structures.
  • Drainage Preparing: Watershed management and emergency drainage plan should be plainly enunciated in policy and legislation.
    • Urban watersheds are micro ecological drainage programs, formed by contours of terrain.
    • Detailed documentation of these ought to be held by companies which are not sure by municipal jurisdictions alternatively, there is a have to have to look at purely natural boundaries these as watersheds rather of governance boundaries like electoral wards for shaping a drainage approach.
  • Drinking water Sensitive Urban Style and design: These techniques consider into thing to consider the topography, varieties of surfaces (permeable or impervious), all-natural drainage and go away quite a lot less affect on the natural environment.
    • Vulnerability analyses and danger assessments really should sort aspect and parcel of town learn strategies.
    • In a switching climate, the drainage infrastructure (specially storm h2o drainage) has to be constructed thinking about the new ‘normal’.
    • Applications this kind of as predictive precipitation modelling can assist do that and are also able to backlink it with the adaptive ability of urban land use.


  • These can all be shipped proficiently by an urban mission together the lines of the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and City Transformation (AMRUT), National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY)and Sensible Cities Mission.
  • Urban Flood administration will not just enable command recurring floods but also react to other fault traces, provide for h2o security, additional eco-friendly areas, and will make the city resilient and sustainable.
  • Disabling spawning of squatter settlements in sensitive zones by providing adequate cost-effective housing will lower quantity of people susceptible to modifying local weather.
  • All this indicates city area bodies will proceed to have a central function to engage in in cities’ struggle with extraordinary temperature activities these types of as flooding and their general resilience